BlueCross and BlueShield of Montana Medical Policy/Codes
Lifts and Elevator Systems
Chapter: Durable Medical Equipment
Current Effective Date: November 26, 2013
Original Effective Date: November 26, 2013
Publish Date: August 26, 2013
Description

Before determining whether a patient requires specialized assist devices, such as a patient lift, their functional status information should be assessed.  A common assessment is the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index scoring tool that measures non-disease-specific clinical applications, based on a 100- point scale that was originally developed in 1948 for cancer patients.  This scoring tool may be used to:

  • Document the patient’s ability to perform daily tasks, also known as activities of daily living; or
  • Compare effectiveness of different therapies; or
  • Assess the prognosis in individual patients; or
  • Determine the best fitting equipment to support the patient’s needs.

 

Karnofsky Performance Status Scale Definitions Rating (%) Criteria Index

Clinical Definition

%

Activity Level

  • Able to carry on normal activity and to work;
  • No special care needed.

100

  • Normal, no complaints;
  • No evidence of disease;
  • Full ambulation and self-care.

90

  • Able to carry on normal activity;
  • Minor signs or symptoms of disease;
  • Full ambulation and self-care.

80

  • Normal activity with effort;
  • Some signs or symptoms of disease;
  • Full ambulation and self-care.
  • Unable to work;
  • Able to live at home and care for most personal needs;
  • Varying amounts of assistance needed.

70

  • Cares for self;
  • Unable to carry on normal activity or to do active work;
  • Reduced ambulation and full self-care.

60

  • Requires occasional assistance, but is able to care for most of personal needs;
  • Reduced ambulation and assisted self-care as needed.

50

  • Requires considerable assistance and frequent medical care;
  • Mainly sitting or lying down and increased assisted self-care required.
  • Unable to care for self;
  • Requires equivalent of institutional or hospital care;
  • Disease may be progressing rapidly.

40

  • Disabled;
  • Requires special care;
  • Mainly in bed and mainly assistance with self-care required.

30

  • Severely disabled;
  • Hospital admission is indicated although death not imminent;
  • Totally bed bound and total patient- care.

20

  • Very sick;
  • Hospital admission necessary;
  • Totally bed bound and active support treatment with total patient-care necessary.

10

  • Moribund;
  • Fatal processes progressing rapidly;
  • Totally bed bound and total patient-care.

0

  • Death

NOTE:  The lower the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index score, the worse the survival for most serious illnesses. 

Alternative scoring tools may be utilized by the treating physician, such as a modified Karnofsky Performance Scale Index system, also known as the Palliative Performance Scale.  The Palliative Performance Scale includes communication, analysis of home nursing care workload, profiling hospital admissions and discharges, and possibly prognostication.

In contrast, a disease-specific functional assessment tool would be the New York Heart Association Functional Classification, which reflects how cardiac symptoms impede patient’s usual activities; or the Expanded Disability Status Scale, which assesses the functional levels of multiple sclerosis patients.  However, the specificity of these tools may not reflect the overall condition or the full range of the patient’s clinical functional status.

Patient lifts or lifters are a canvas/nylon/mesh sling, hammock, harness, hoist or seat lift detachable from a mobile frame or a permanent gliding ceiling track.  These devices assist the patient to transfer between a bed and a chair, wheelchair, shower/bathtub chair, or commode, and require assistance from an additional person to complete the transfer.  The lifts may be electrical, pneumatic, battery powered, hydraulic, or hand (manually) controlled, or may be any combination of those. The lifts transfer the patient within a room or room-to-room on a rolling base. Often these devices are commonly called Hoyer Lifts®, which is a brand name.  This is different when the patient is supported by a swivel bar with a sling or from a hanging bar with a swing or seat attached to a ceiling gliding track system.  This type of equipment may be called a lifter, gliding ceiling, or track system.

Power toilet seat lifts are a patient-controlled system that combines an air compressor and an air exhaust valve and effectively assists the patient in sitting down on and standing up from the commode or toilet without other assistance.  They are commonly called easy lifts or lift-up toilet seats.

Seat or chair lifts are a motorized furniture piece, controlled by the patient, and effectively assist the patient in standing up and sitting down without other assistance.  They are commonly called pop-up chairs.  The motorized operation may be a smooth, easy lift motion.  These lift units are factory installed into a furniture piece and are not portable.  Another type of seat or chair lift is the spring release (with a sudden catapult-like motion) that jolts the patient from a seated to standing position only; however, this type of lift does not assist the patient to return to a seated position. 

Standing frames or standing systems are motorized or have a hydraulic drive system, which gradually lifts the patient to a fully upright position from a prone or supine position, without assistance from a caregiver.  The system can vertically stabilize the patient with 100% weight bearing.  Unlike seat or chair lifts, the system can return the patient to a seating position.  There are several accessories and aids that can be attached to the frame unit, such as padding, seating or wheelchair, retractable wheels or casters, retractable stationary frame, safety gates, glide handles for upper body strengthening and/or metal, plexiglas, or wooden tables. They may be known as standing frames, standing systems, standing units, standers, youth frames, or walkabout systems.

Stair lifts or stairway elevators are motorized seats attached to a track built onto an existing stairwell or into a stairwell under construction.  The seat rotates, allowing the patient to easily sit down or stand up at the end of the stairs.  The seat motion can be controlled by the patient or remotely by a caretaker.  During power outages, most systems are battery powered or hand operated.  They may be known as chair lifts, stair glides, or stair chairs.

Elevator or platform lifts are motorized or hydraulic drive systems within lift towers built into an existing home or as part of a new home construction.  The cab may be large enough to accommodate a wheelchair or several people standing.  During power outages, the elevator should be manually controlled to lower the patient to the bottom floor.  They can be called residential elevators.  Platform lifts can be the outdoor form of a home elevator.  Platform lifts are generally not enclosed.  They can be used indoors.

Bathtub lifts are molded plastic seating attached to a lifting tube or track.  The unit rests in the tub or shower and attaches to the standard bath or shower spouts; and by using a diverter, the seat is lifted with standard household water pressure.  They may be known as tub lift bath chairs.

Policy

Each benefit plan, summary plan description or contract defines which services are covered, which services are excluded, and which services are subject to dollar caps or other limitations, conditions or exclusions.  Members and their providers have the responsibility for consulting the member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract to determine if there are any exclusions or other benefit limitations applicable to this service or supply.  If there is a discrepancy between a Medical Policy and a member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract, the benefit plan, summary plan description or contract will govern.

Coverage

Manually operated, non-electrical or non-battery, patient lift, lifter, sling, or hoist, which are mobile mechanical-hydraulic/pneumatic cylinder type with rolling base legs and a swivel hanging bar, when used for a patient whose clinical functional status is documented at 40% or below on the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index OR at an equivalent level, utilizing an alternative functional status measurement, are considered medically necessary when the patient demonstrates that all the following criteria are met and documented:

  • Near or total bed confinement without the use of a lift; AND
  • Unable to do most activities of daily living; AND
  • Incapable of transferring independently from one surface to another, such as a chair to bed transfer, without near or total assistance of more than one person; AND
  • A diagnosis of an extensive disease condition, in which periodic movement is necessary to improve the patient’s medical condition or to arrest or retard deterioration of their condition; AND
  • A prescription from the treating physician.

NOTE:  Examples of conditions that may have a clinical function status of 40% or below include (as defined in the Karnofsky Performance Scale in the description below), but are not limited to:

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease); OR
  • Bilateral or double amputee associated with other debilitating conditions, such as cerebrovascular accident, heart condition, senility; OR
  • Cerebrovascular accident with:
    1. Hemiplegia and extreme weakness on non-paralyzed side, OR
    2. Hemiplegia and obesity, OR
    3. Hemiplegia and severe advanced rheumatoid arthritis; OR
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe; OR
  • Diffuse sclerosis (Schilder's); OR
  • Emphysema, severe; OR
  • Friedreich's ataxia; OR
  • Hemiplegia with severe contractures of legs; OR
  • Lateral sclerosis; OR
  • Leukodystrophy; OR
  • Multiple sclerosis; OR
  • Myelitis; OR
  • Paraplegia; OR
  • Primary lateral sclerosis; OR
  • Progressive bulbar paralysis; OR
  • Progressive degeneration (or necrosis) of spinal cord; OR
  • Progressive spinal muscular atrophy; OR
  • Quadriplegia; OR
  • Subacute combined sclerosis or degeneration; OR
  • Syringomyelia; OR
  • Transitional (diffuse disseminated) sclerosis.

Power or powerized toilet seat lifts, which are attached to the toilet, not as a portable unit, AND/OR smooth operating and mechanized, seat or chair lifts, which are factory installed or permanently built into a furniture piece that assists the patient to both standing and sitting positions are considered medically necessary when the patient demonstrates that all the following criteria are met and documented:

  • A severe, diagnosed condition that prevents them from assuming an upright (standing) position on their own effort and essentially prevents them from accessing the commode or toilet without the device.  These conditions include, but are not limited to, the following:
    1. Arthritis of the hip or knee, OR 
    2. Neuromuscular disease, such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, muscle weakness due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Guillain Barré, or hemiparesis; AND 
  • Completely incapable of standing up from any commode or toilet (if powerized toilet seat lift) and/or from any chair (if seat or chair lift of any type) in their home; AND
  • The ability to ambulate (walk), once standing; AND
  • A prescription from the treating physician.

NOTE:  Smooth operating and mechanized seat or chair lift mechanism, which are factory installed or permanently built into the furniture piece:   When considered medically necessary, this coverage is limited to the actual mechanism or electric motor that lifts the seat or chair, even if it is incorporated into a standard or certain type of chair.  The chair (furniture piece) itself is not a covered benefit, whether or not it is an existing or newly purchased furniture piece.

Manually operated standing frames or standing systems, which are with or without metal, plexiglas, wooden or tables, and with attached wheels/casters, stationary frame, safety gate, glide handles, and/or seat kits/wheelchair that assist the patient to a fully upright or vertical position from a prone or supine position are considered medically necessary when the patient demonstrates that all the following criteria are met and documented:

  • The residual strength in lower extremities with the potential for ambulating, but unable to stand or ambulate independently, with or without the assistance of devices or physical therapy, due to a neuromuscular condition.  These conditions include, but are not limited to, the following:
    1. Spinal cord injury; OR
    2. Traumatic brain injury; OR
    3. Cerebral palsy; OR
    4. Muscular dystrophy; OR
    5. Multiple sclerosis, OR
    6. Spina bifida; AND
  • Once standing, the patient is expected to show progressive improvement, as a result of increased weight bearing, in one of the following functions:
    1. Use of arms or hands; OR
    2. Control of head, neck and trunk; OR
    3. Activities of daily living performance; OR
    4. Digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and/or excretory system performance; OR
    5. Reduction of skin breakdown or pressure sores; AND
  • A prescription from the treating physician.

The following patient care equipment items are not medically necessary and therefore not eligible for coverage because they are considered convenience items or features.  These items include, but are not limited to:

  • Battery powered patient lift, lifter, sling or hoist of any type; OR
  • Electric powered patient lift, lifter, sling or hoist of any type; OR
  • Manually operated patient ceiling track glide lift or transfer systems of any type, added to home ceiling and doorway framework to transfer patient from room to room; OR
  • Electric powered patient ceiling track glide lift or transfer systems of any type, added to home ceiling and doorway framework to transfer patient from room to room; OR
  • Spring release motion seat or chair lifts built into or added to a chair; OR
  • Sudden catapult-like motion seat or chair lifts built into or added to a chair; OR
  • Manually operated portable motor seat lift mechanisms that are used on a toilet seat, chair or an automobile car seat as a portable or transferable unit; OR
  • Electric powered portable motor seat lift mechanisms that are used on a toilet seat, chair, or an automobile car seat as a portable or transferable unit; OR
  • Battery powered standing frames or standing systems; OR
  • Electrical powered standing frames or standing systems; OR
  • Manually operated stairwell lifts of any type; OR
  • Motorized stairwell lifts of any type; OR
  • Hydraulic elevators or platform lifts of any type that are opened or enclosed; OR
  • Motorized elevators or platform lifts of any type that are opened or enclosed; OR
  • Water pressure controlled bath tub lifts of any type.

Policy Guidelines

If the projected cost of renting lifts or related equipment for temporary conditions exceeds the cost of purchasing the equipment, reimbursement should never exceed the purchase price.

If the cost of repair exceeds the cost of purchasing a new item or renting the item for the remaining period of medical need, the most cost effective alternative should be chosen.

A standing frame or standing system billed with an open code should be analogue to an appropriate specific code and reimbursed at an equivalent level to the specific code, when the service is considered medically necessary.

Rationale

Coverage for patient lifts or powered toilet seat lifts is based entirely on the physical capabilities of the individual patient.  When compared to being in the hospital, the ultimate goal in using a patient lift or a powered toilet seat lift in the home should be to improve the patient’s quality of life by allowing them to accomplish their own daily activities when they are able to be transferred safely and easily. 

A physician must provide documentation supporting the patient’s clinical function status for the item ordered.  Generally, assessment of patient functional status has been gathered by observing patients getting into offices or on and off examination tables.  Some assessments rely largely on asking patients how their health conditions affect daily activities rather than on rigorous physical examinations.  Hundreds of disease-specific functional status measures exist for clinical applications, such as the New York Heart Association Functional Assessment for cardiovascular disease, which reflects how cardiac symptoms impede patients’ usual activities; or the Expanded Disability Status Scale for multiple sclerosis, which involves lengthy discussions regarding the patient’s daily activities and their ability to meet their needs. 

The Karnofsky Performance Scale Index uses a 100 point scale that indicates the patient’s ability to perform daily tasks.  Alternative performance scales, such as Palliative Performance Scale, may be used to assess the patient’s functional level to estimate the degree to which the patient’s capacity to carry out daily activities is diminished by illness or injury.  Patients who are unable to transfer to or from a bed to a chair, bath, wheelchair, or commode without a patient lift are considered to be at low functional status level.

The independence of elderly and arthritic patients, as well as persons with disabilities, is influenced by their ability to sit on or stand from a toilet and/or a chair.  The presence of pain, reduced joint range of motion, stiffness, and muscle weakness often limit the ability to achieve a sit-to-stand or stand-to-sit position.  Since the patient is ambulatory and utilizing a powered toilet seat lift and/or chair lift, reduced assistance is required, such as patient lift systems or attendants.

Although there is limited published scientific data from randomized controlled case studies, the literature describes the effectiveness of standing frames or standing systems as a method to improve bone mineral density in severely disabled children with cerebral palsy or other neuromuscular conditions.  In addition to improvement of bone density, it is reported that patients utilizing a standing program with use of standing frames or standing systems have improved digestion, improved muscle activity, reduced lower leg atrophy and improved bone strength, decreased muscle contractures, decreased risk of fractures, improved bladder drainage and kidney function, improved circulatory and cardiovascular function, decreased risk of obesity, reduction of pain and spasticity, and fewer pressure sores and improved skin integrity.  Often these devices are used in the rehabilitation program for home and school use. 

Lift systems or devices, such as electric patient lifts, elevator/stair lifts, and bathtub lifts, are convenience items or features for the patient and/or caregiver. 

2009 Update

A search of the literature through June 2009 identified no new clinical publications or any additional information that would change the coverage position of this medical policy.

2011 Update

A search of peer reviewed literature through March 2011 identified no new clinical trial publications or any additional information that would change the coverage position of this medical policy.  Lift systems or devices, such as battery/electrical powered patient lifts, elevator/stair lifts, gliding track transfer lifts, and bathtub lifts, remain convenience items or features for the patient and/or caregiver.

Coding

Disclaimer for coding information on Medical Policies           

Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.           

The presence or absence of procedure, service, supply, device or diagnosis codes in a Medical Policy document has no relevance for determination of benefit coverage for members or reimbursement for providers. Only the written coverage position in a medical policy should be used for such determinations.           

Benefit coverage determinations based on written Medical Policy coverage positions must include review of the member’s benefit contract or Summary Plan Description (SPD) for defined coverage vs. non-coverage, benefit exclusions, and benefit limitations such as dollar or duration caps. 

ICD-9 Codes

323.9, 330.0, 332.0, 334.00, 335.10, 335.20, 335.22, 335.24, 336.0, 336.1, 336.2, 336.8, 340, 341.1, 342.90, 343.0, 343.1, 343.2, 343.3, 343.4, 343.8, 343.9, 344.01, 344.02, 344.03, 344.04, 344.09, 344.1,  344.00, 357.0, 359.1, 434.91, 436, 438.20, 438.21, 438.22, 492.8, 496, 714.2, 715.00, 715.09, 741.90, 741.91, 741.92, 741.93, 905.9, 97.60, V49.70, V49.73, V49.74, V49.75, V49.76, V49.77

ICD-10 Codes

E75.23, E75.25, E75.29, G04.1, G04.90, G04.91, G37.4, G11.1, G12.21, G12.22, G12.29, G12.9, G20, G21.4, G32.0, G35, G37.0, G37.5, G61.0, G71.0, G80.0, G80.1, G80.2, G80.4, G80.8, G80.9, G81.90, G82.20, G82.21, G82.22, G82.50, G82.51, G82.52, G82.53, G82.54, G95.0, G95.11, G95.19, G95.81, G95.89, I63.50, I63.511, I63.512, I63.519, I63.521, I63.522, I63.529, I63.531, I63.532, I63.539, I63.541, I63.542, I63.549, I63.59, I63.8, I63.9, I67.8, I69.051, I69.052, I69.053, I69.054, I69.059, I69.151, I69.152, I69.153, I69.154, I69.159, I69.251, I69.252, I69.253, I69.254, I69.259, I69.351, I69.352, I69.353, I69.534, I69.359, I69.851, I69.852, I69.853, I69.854, I69.859, I69.951, I69.952, I69.953, I69.954, I69.959, J43.0, J43.1, J43.2, J43.8, J43.9, J44.9, M05.60, M05.611, M05.612, M05.619, M15.0, M15.9, Q05.5, Q05.6, Q05.7, Q05.8, Q05.9, Q07.00, Z89.431, Z89.432, Z89.439, Z89.441, Z89.442, Z89.449, Z89.50, Z89.51, Z89.52, Z89.611, Z89.612, Z89.619, Z89.621, Z86.622, Z89.629, Z89.9

Procedural Codes: E0621, E0625, E0627, E0628, E0629, E0630,E0635, E0636, E0637, E0638, E0639, E0640, E0641, E0642, E0170, E0171, E0172, E2230, E2231, E2295
References
  1. Chang, S.K., and K.A. Hawes.  The adequacy of the Karnofsky Rating and Global Adjustment to Illness Scale as outcome measures in cancer rehabilitation and continuing care.  Progress in Clinical and Biological Research (1983) 120:429-43.
  2. Grieco, A., and C.J. Long.  Investigation of the Karnofsky Performance Status as a measure of quality of life.  Health Psychology (1984) 3(2):129-42.
  3. CMS.HHS – Seat Lift, Publication Number 100-3. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Carriers Manual, Coverage Issues Manual – Section Number 280.4, Durable Medical Equipment (1989 May 1).  Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov (Accessed – 2011 April 5).
  4. Riley, P.O., Schenkman, M.L., et al.  Mechanics of a constrained chair-rise. Journal of Biomechanics (1991) 24(1):77-85.
  5. Burdett, R.G., Habasevich, R., et al. Biomechanical comparison of rising from two types of chairs.  Physical Therapy (1985 August) 65(8):1177-83.
  6. Schultz, A.B., Alexander, N.B., et al.  Biomechanical analyses of rising from a chair. Journal of Biomechanics (1992 December) 25(12):1383-91.
  7. Medicare Region C – DMERC, PalmettoGBA – Seat Lift Mechanisms.  LCD for Seat Lift Mechanisms (L11523) (1993 October 1). Available at http://www.palmettogba.com (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  8. Medicare Region C – DMERC, PalmettoGBA – Patient Lift.  October 1, 1993. LCD for Patient Lift (L11562) (1993 October 1).  Available at http://www.palmettogba.com (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  9. Anderson, F., Downing, G.M., et al.  Palliative performance scale (PPS): A new tool.  Journal of Palliative Care (1996 Spring) 12(1):5-11.
  10. Hughes, M.A., and M.L. Schenkman.  Chair rise strategy in the functionally impaired elderly. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development (1996 October) 33(4):409-12.
  11. Klose, K.J., Jacobs, P.L., et al.  Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 1, ambulation performance and anthropometric measures.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (1997 August) 78(8):789-93.
  12. Walter, J.S., Sola, P.G., et al.  Indications for a home standing program for individuals with spinal cord injury.  Journal of Spinal Cord Injury (1999 Fall) 22(3):152-8.
  13. Palliative – Regional Palliative Care Program.  Assessment Tool from Regional Palliative Care Program of Cartias Health Group, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (2001 November).  Available at http://www.palliative.org (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  14. eMedicine – Hunter, Oregon K., Impairment Rating of Neuromuscular Conditions.  eMedicine Continuing Education (2001 December 13).  Available at http://www.emedicine.com (Accessed - 2004 September 7).
  15. Gudjonsdottir, B., and V. Stemmons Mercer.  Effects of a dynamic versus a static prone stander on bone mineral density and behavior in four children with severe cerebral palsy.  Pediatric Physical Therapy (2002 Spring) 14(1):38-46.
  16. T.H.E. Medical – Need a Lift? December 12, 2002.  Position Paper and Patient Handout. T.H.E. Medical – Professional Patient Care Products (2002 December 12).  Available at http://www.themedical.com (Accessed - 2002 December 12).
  17. Burton, L.A., Leahy, D.M., et al.  Traumatic brain injury brief outcome interview. Applied Neurophysiology (2003) 10(3):145-52.
  18. Edlich, R.F., Heather, C.L., et al.  Revolutionary advances in adaptive seating systems for the elderly and person with disabilities that assist sit-to-stand transfers. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants (2003) 13(1):31-9.
  19. Caulton, J.M., Ward, K.A., et al.  A randomized controlled trial of standing program on bone mineral density in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy.  Archives of Disease in Childhood (2004 February) 89(2):131-5.
  20. CMS.HHS – Iezzoni, Lisa L., and Marjorie S. Greenberg, Capturing and Classifying Functional Status Information in Administrative Databases.  Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Health Care Financing Review (2003 Spring) 24(3).  Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov
  21. (Accessed - 2004 September 7).
  22. CMS.HHS – Üstün, T.B., Chatterji, S., et al.  WHO’s ICF and Functional Information in Health Records.  Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Health Care Financing Review (2003 Spring) 24(3).  Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov (Accessed - 2004 September 7).
  23. CancerNetwork – Performance Scales.  September 2, 2004.  Appendix from Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2004 September 2).  Available at http://www.cancernetwork.com (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  24. Medicare Region B – DMERC, Adminastar – Seat Lift Mechanisms.  LMRP for Seat Lift Mechanisms (L11513) (2003 April 1). Available at http://www.adminiastar.com (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  25. Medicare Region B – DMERC, Adminastar – Patient Lift.  LMRP for Patient Lift (L11547) (2003 April 1).  Available at http://www.adminiastar.com (Accessed - 2004 September 2).
  26. HospicePatients – Karnofsky Performance Status Scale.  Hospice Patients Alliance (2004 September 2).  Available at http://www.hospicepatients.org (Accessed – 2004 September 2).
  27. CMS.HHS – Bathtub Lift, Cushion Lift Power Seat, Elevators, Hydraulic Lifts, Patient Lifts, Seat Lift, Stairway Elevators.  Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Carriers Manual, Coverage Issues Manual – Section 60-Durable Medical Equipment (2004 September 1).  Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov (Accessed – 2004 September 1).
  28. Rifton – Standing Aids – prone standers, supine boards, mobile standers, and vertical standers.  Position Paper excerpt from Abledata Fact Sheet on Standing Aids – Rifton Equipment Products (2006 December 29).  Available at http://www.rifton.com (Accessed – 2006 December 29).
History
August 2013  New 2013 BCBSMT medical policy.
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