BlueCross and BlueShield of Montana Medical Policy/Codes
Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adults
Chapter: Administrative
Current Effective Date: November 26, 2013
Original Effective Date: November 26, 2013
Publish Date: August 26, 2013
Description

The Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adults is a program of administering vaccines and toxoids before any exposure to pathogenic viruses/bacteria, known as vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunizations are most effective when they are completed before exposure. However, in the case of unanticipated exposure or incomplete immunization, postexposure immunization can be very effective.

Policy

Each benefit plan, summary plan description or contract defines which services are covered, which services are excluded, and which services are subject to dollar caps or other limitations, conditions or exclusions. Members and their providers have the responsibility for consulting the member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract to determine if there are any exclusions or other benefit limitations applicable to this service or supply. If there is a discrepancy between a Medical Policy and a member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract, the benefit plan, summary plan description or contract will govern.

Coverage

Immunizations, administered by a physician or pharmacist, for children (birth to 18 years of age) and adults (from 18 to greater than 65 years of age) may be considered medically necessary:

  • When the patient is eligible for preventive medicine benefits; and
  • When the immunization/vaccine is included in any one of the recommended immunization schedule documents from the:
  1. American Academy of Family Practice (AAFP),
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), or
  3. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)-(part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - the CDC) listed in the Rationale section.

CAUTION:  Benefit coverage is not allowed when any vaccine is identified by a specific billing or documentation code that has not yet received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval.

The following are listings of immunizations that are considered routine, which includes the associated coding, FDA position, vaccine brand name, if available, and FDA approved labeling, if available.

Hemophilus influenza b vaccine, MeningococcalC&Y and Tetanus Toxoid:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90644

FDA approval on June 14, 2012

MenHibrix®

FDA-approved a new meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenHibrix®) (when administered to children six weeks of age through 18 months of age).

90644

Not FDA- approval as of January 1, 2010

None

FDA has NOT approved the haemophilus influenza Type B (Hib) vaccine, meningococcal conjugate vaccine (serogroups C and Y) (MenCY), and tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibMenCYTT) (when administered to children two to 15 months of age, as a four dose schedule). The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

Prevnar 13 for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Otitis Media: 

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90670

FDA approval on January 22, 2013

Prevnar 13™

FDA-approved the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM197 protein), which would be used to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease in children 6 years through 17 years of age. The brand name is Prevnar 13™, which includes the same serotypes as the Prevnar®  approved in 2010.

90670

FDA approval on February 24, 2010

Prevnar 13™

FDA-approved the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM197 protein), which would be used to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease and otitis media for children 6 weeks through 5 years of age. The brand name is Prevnar 13™, which includes 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and seven otitis media serotypes. This form of Prevnar® will be the successor of Prevnar 7® vaccine licensed by the FDA in 2000.

90670

Not FDA- approval as of May 7, 2009

Prevnar 13™

FDA has NOT approved the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM197 protein), which would be used to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease and otitis media. The vaccine is to be given to children two-months to five-years. The brand name is Prevnar 13™, which includes seven more serotypes than the 2000 launch of the Prevnar 7®.

Gardasil and Cervarix for Human Papillomavirus:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90649

FDA approval on April 5, 2011

Gardasil®

FDA-approved the supplementation of clinical study outcomes when Gardasil® was given to women ages 27 through 45 years of age. However, the FDA-approved label was not changed to indicate the use of Gardasil® for that age group. Since the FDA has NOT approved Gardasil® for patients greater than 27 years of age, administration of this vaccine is considered experimental, investigational and unproven for those patients greater than 27 years of age. The FDA-approved label only allows for girls and women ages 9 through 26 years and for boys and men ages 9 through 26 years.

90649

FDA approval on December 22, 2010

Gardasil®

  • FDA-approved the use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Gardasil®. In August 2013, FDA-approved the use of Gardasil®  as a prevention of anal cancer caused by HPV types 16 and 18; genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11; and precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, as in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2, and 3. The FDA-approved labeling allows for vaccination in boys and men ages 9 through 26 years. The FDA-approved a labeling change to allow the use of the HPV vaccine for the following prevention of precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 for girls and women ages 9 through 26 years:

o   Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 and Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS),

o   Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade1,

o   Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 2 and grade 3,

o   Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) grade 2 and grade 3,

o   Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2, and 3.

  • FDA-approved labeling for the use of Gardasil®  for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and anal cancer caused by HPV types 16 and 18 and for the prevention of genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11 remain unchanged for girls and women ages 9 through 26 years.

90650

FDA approval on October 16, 2009

Cervarix®

FDA-approved the use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Types 16 and 18) bivalent, Cervarix®, for prevention against cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV Types 16 and 18 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse and adenocarcinoma in situ and cervical intraepithelial grade 1 neoplasia. The FDA-approved labeling allows for vaccination in girls and women ages 10 through 25 years as a three dose schedule.

90649

FDA approval on October 16, 2009

Gardasil®

FDA-approved the use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Types 6 and 11), Gardasil®, as a prevention of genital warts (condyloma acuminata) in boys and men, ages nine through 26 years as a three dose schedule.

90650

Not FDA- approval as of January 1, 2008

None

FDA has NOT approved the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine types 16 and 18 bivalent (not the same as Gardasil®) three dose schedule. The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

90646

FDA approval on June 8, 2006

Gardasil®

FDA-approved a new Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18 ) recombinant vaccine, Gardasil®, for prevention against cervical cancer, genital warts, cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1. On June 29, 2006, the ACIP voted to recommend routine vaccination to girls when they are 11 to 12 years old. The ACIP also allows for vaccination of girls beginning at nine years old as well as vaccination of girls and women 13 to 26 years old.

Influenza Virus Vaccines INCLUDING those for Pandemic Virus:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90658, 90686, 

90688, and Q2036

FDA approval on August 16, 2013

FluLaval® Quadrivalent

FDA has approved a quadrivalent influenza virus vaccine, given intramuscularly, FluLaval® Quadrivalent, which would be indicated for active immunization of individuals 3 years and older. The number of doses may vary for children 3 to 8 years of age, depending upon vaccination/administration with an influenza vaccine in a previous season. If there has been no previous vaccination, two doses at least four weeks apart may be required. The FlaLavel® vaccine is used for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A subtype virus and type B viruses. This FDA-approved FluLaval® vaccine is for the 2013-2014 formula (not the FDA-approved 2006 October 5 through the 2013 July 20 FluLaval® formulas) and available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season. (NOTE: This FluLaval® Quadrivalent vaccine has not been FDA-approved for children under age 3 years, which is reflected by CPT codes 90685 and 90687.)

90656, 90658, and Q2035

FDA approval on July 19, 2013

Afluria®

FDA has approved an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B, given intramuscularly, for individuals 5 years and older. The number of doses may vary for children 5 years through 8 years, depending upon vaccination/administration with an influenza vaccine in a previous season. The FDA approved Afluria® for the 2013-2014 Flu Season; however, the initial FDA approval was in 2007.

90656, 90658, and Q2037

FDA approved on July 19, 2013

Fluvirin®

FDA has approved an inactivated influenza virus vaccine indicated for active immunization of individuals 4 years of age and older against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B, given intramuscularly. The number of doses may vary for children 4 years through 8 years, depending upon vaccination/administration with an influenza vaccine in a previous season. The FDA approved Fluvirin® for the 2013-2014 Flu Season; however, the initial FDA approval was in 1988.

90655, 90656, 90657, 90658, 90685, 90686, and Q2038

FDA approval on June 7, 2013

Fluzone® Quadrivalent

FDA has approved a quadrivalent influenza virus vaccine, given intramuscularly, Fluzone® Quadrivalent, which would be indicated for active immunization of individuals 6 months and older. The number of doses may vary for children 6 months through 8 years of age, depending upon vaccination/administration with an influenza vaccine in a previous season. If there has been no previous vaccination, two doses at least four weeks apart may be required. The Fluzone® vaccine is used for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A subtype virus and type B viruses. The FDA approved Fluzone® vaccine is for the 2013-2014 formula, available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season, and is not the same as the Fluzone® Intradermal or Fluzone® High-Dose vaccines. A variety of CPT codes may be utilized for this preparation.

90673

Q2033

FDA approval on January 16, 2013

Flublok®

FDA has approved a trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine, given intramuscularly, Flublok®, which would be indicated for active immunization in patients 18 through 49 years of age. The Flublok® is to be given for the prevention of influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B. This vaccine will be available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season.

90661

FDA approval on November 20, 2012

Flucelvax®

FDA has approved an inactivated influenza virus vaccine, given intramuscularly, Flucelvax®, which would be indicated for active immunization in patients 18 years of age and older. The FDA-approved labeling does not address for administration to children less than 18 years of age. The Flucelvax® is to be given for the prevention of influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B. (NOTE: The American Medical Association reassigned a previously indicated 2008 pandemic preparation CPT code for the Flucelvax® influenza virus vaccine as 90661.)

This vaccine will be available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season.

90656, and 90686

FDA approval on December 14, 2012

Fluarix® Quadrivalent

FDA has approved a quadrivalent influenza virus vaccine, given intramuscularly, Fluarix® Quadrivalent, which would be indicated for active immunization of individuals 3 years of age and older. The number of doses may vary for children 3 to 8 years of age, depending upon vaccination/administration with an influenza vaccine in a previous season. If there has been no previous vaccination, two doses at least four weeks apart may be required. The Fluarix® vaccine is used for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A subtype virus and type B viruses. This FDA-approved Fluarix® vaccine is for the 2013-2014 formula (not the FDA-approved 2005 August 31 or the 2009 October 19 Fluarix® formulas) and available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season. (NOTE: This Fluarix® Quadrivalent vaccine has not been FDA-approved for children under age 3 years, which is reflected by CPT codes 90685 and 90687.)

90653

Not FDA- approval as of December 5, 2012

None

FDA has NOT approved an inactivated adjuvant subunit intramuscular influenza vaccine to be given intramuscularly. The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

90685, 90686, 90687, and 90688

Not FDA- approval as of December 5, 2012

None

FDA has NOT approved the influenza split virus, quadrivalent, with or without preservatives, given intermuscularly to individuals either 6 to 33 months and/or 3 years and older. The brand names or acronyms have not been identified.

90660 and 90672

FDA approval on December 23, 2009

FluMist® Quadrivalent

FDA-approved a quadrivalent influenza vaccine, given intranasally, FluMist® Quadrivalent, which would be indicated for active immunization in patients two through 49 years of age. The vaccine contains four strains of the influenza virus, two influenza subtype A strains and two influenza type B strains. FluMist® Quadrivalent was preceded by FluMist®, a trivalent, was released in 2003 and is not the same preparation a FluMist® Quadrivalent. This vaccine will be available for the 2013-2014 Flu Season.

90654

FDA approval on  May 9, 2011

Fluzone® Intradermal

FDA-approved the influenza split virus vaccine, given intradermally, Fluzone® Intradermal, which would be indicated for active immunization of adults 18 through 64 years of age against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B contained in the vaccine. This vaccine will be available for the 2011-2012 Flu Season.

90654

Not FDA- approval as of December 8, 2010

Fluzone® Intradermal

FDA has NOT approved the influenza split virus given intradermally, Fluzone® Intradermal. This is not the same as Fluzone® High-Dose, FDA-approved in 2009 for the 2010-2011 influenza season.

90664, 90666, 90667, and 90668

Not FDA- approval as of April 1, 2010

None

FDA has NOT approved the following influenza virus vaccines, pandemic formulation:

1.   Live virus, for intranasal use.

2.   Split virus, preservative free, for intramuscular use.

3.   Split virus, adjuvant, for intramuscular use.

4.   Split virus, for intramuscular use.

The brand names or acronyms have not been identified.

90662

FDA approval on December 23, 2009

Fluzone® High-Dose

FDA-approved the influenza split virus (enhanced immunogenicity) vaccine, Fluzone® High-Dose, which would be indicated for active immunization of adults 65 years of age and older against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B contained in the vaccine. The Fluzone® High-Dose vaccine will be available for the 2010-2011 influenza season. This is not the same as Fluzone®, FDA-approved in 2002, for use individuals, ages 6 months and older.

90663

FDA approval on September 15, 2009

None

FDA-approved the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine, which would be used to prevent influenza disease caused by pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. The FDA-approved labeling allows for vaccination to children (beginning at six-months) and adults. The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

90661

Not FDA- approval as of January 1, 2008

None

FDA has NOT approved the influenza virus vaccine (resulting from cell cultures, subunit, preservative and antibiotic free) and influenza virus vaccine (pandemic preparation). The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

RotaTeq and RotaShield for Rotavirus:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90681

FDA approval on April 3, 2008

Rotarix®

FDA-approved a new rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix® for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children.

90680

FDA approval on February 3, 2006

RotaTeq®

FDA-approved a new rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq® for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. Previously on July 15, 1999, clinicians had been directed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the FDA to discontinue the administration of tetravalent rotavirus vaccine (RRV0TV) or RotaShield™ due to injection side effects.

DTaP AND Poliovirus:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90696

FDA approval on June 20, 2008

KINRIX®

FDA-approved a new diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine and poliovirus vaccine (IPV) vaccine (DTaP – IPV), KINRIX, when children have been previously given DTaP.

90696

Not FDA- approval as of January 1, 2008

KINRIX®

FDA has NOT approved the DTaP vaccine and IPV (DTaP-IPV) (inactivated, when administered to children four years through six years of age) or KINRIX®.

DTaP, Haemophilus Influenza Type B AND Poliovirus: 

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90698

FDA approval on June 24, 2008

Pentacel®

FDA-approved a new diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis (DTaP), haemophilus influenza Type B (Hib), and poliovirus (IPV) (DTaP-Hib-IPV) vaccine (inactivated, when administered to infants and children six weeks through four years of age), as part of the immunization schedule for infants and children.

Zostavax for Varicella-Zoster Virus: 

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90736

FDA approval – March 24, 2011

Zostavax®

FDA-approved Zostavax® for patients 50 to 59 years of age for the prevention of shingles. Since the FDA has NOT approved Zostavax for patients less than 50 years of age, administration of this vaccine is considered experimental, investigational and unproven for those patients less than 50 years of age.

90736

FDA approval – May 26, 2006

Zostavax®

FDA-approved a new live virus vaccine to boost immunity against varicella-zoster virus, to reduce the risk of shingles (herpes zoster) in patients 60 years of age and older. On October 26, 2006, the ACIP voted to recommend vaccination to all people age 60 and older, including those who have had a previous episode of shingles. Since the FDA has NOT approved Zostavax for patients less than 60 years of age, administration of this vaccine is considered experimental, investigational and unproven for those patients less than 60 years of age.

Hepatitis B Vaccine:

Coding

FDA Position

Vaccine Brand Name

FDA Approved Labeling or Information When non-FDA Approved

90739

Not FDA-approval as of December 5, 2012

None

FDA has NOT approved the adult two dose schedule intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine. The brand name or acronym has not been identified.

Policy Guidelines

The appropriate CPT Code assigned for RotaTeq® is 90680 or 90681, which was the same code formerly associated with RotaShield™ (rotavirus) that is no longer on the market. RotaTeq is distributed as an individual pouched single-dose tube package or as ten individually pouched single-dose tubes. For claims prior to 10/22/1999, RotaShield  is supplied in single dose vials and buffer diluent. Pricing for this vaccine should be based on average wholesale price (AWP) plus 10% markup.     

Rationale

The immunization types and schedule for children and adults shall follow the recommendations approved by the:

  • American Academy of Family Practice (AAFP) at <http://www.aafp.org>.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) at <http://www.aap.org>.
  • Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)-(part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - the CDC) at <http://www.cdc.gov>.
  • American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) at <http://www.acog.org>.
  • American College of Physicians (ACP) at <http://www.acponline.org>.
  • The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) at <http://www.acpm.org>.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at <http://www.cdc.gov>.
  • Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - (part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - the CDC) at <http://www.cdc.gov>.
  • National Immunization Program (NIP) - (part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - the CDC) at <http://www.cdc.gov>.
  • U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) at <http://www.ahrq.gov>.

The vaccination recommendations adopted by the CDC, ACIP, AAP, and AAFP, are consistent with the other groups listed that promote preventive health services to patients of all ages. Health care providers may provide education to their patients or the patient's parents/guardians about immunizations in general and the proposed schedule of immunizations due.

An additional avenue of information is available on immunizations and preventive medicine issues is accessible in the Well with Blue portion of the BCBSMT web site at http://www.bcbsmt.com .

Coding

Disclaimer for coding information on Medical Policies

Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.

The presence or absence of procedure, service, supply, device or diagnosis codes in a Medical Policy document has no relevance for determination of benefit coverage for members or reimbursement for providers. Only the written coverage position in a medical policy should be used for such determinations.

Benefit coverage determinations based on written Medical Policy coverage positions must include review of the member’s benefit contract or Summary Plan Description (SPD) for defined coverage vs. non-coverage, benefit exclusions, and benefit limitations such as dollar or duration caps. 

ICD-9 Codes

99.36, 99.39, 99.48, 99.52, 99.45, 99.46, 99.37, 99.41, 99.47, 99.38, V01, V01.2, V01.4, V02, V02.4, V03, V03.5, V03.6, V03.7, V03.8, V03.81, V04, V04.0, V04.2, V04.3, V04.6, V05, V05.3, V05.4, V06, V06.1, V06.2, V06.3, V06.4, V06.5, V06.6, V06.8, V06.9

ICD-10 Codes

Z00.129, Z20.4, Z20.5, Z20.89, Z22.2, Z23, Z28.01, Z28.02, Z28.03, Z28.04, Z28.09, Z28.1, Z28.20, Z28.21, Z28.29, Z28.81, Z28.82, Z28.89, Z28.9, Z53.1, Z53.20, Z53.21, Z53.29, 3E0134Z, 3E0234Z

 

Procedural Codes: 90460, 90461, 90471, 90472, 90473, 90474, 90632, 90633, 90634, 90636, 90644, 90645, 90646, 90647, 90648, 90649, 90650, 90653, 90654, 90655, 90656, 90657, 90658, 90660, 90661, 90662, 90664, 90666, 90667, 90668, 90669, 90670, 90672, 90673, 90680, 90681, 90685, 90686, 90687, 90688, 90696, 90698, 90700, 90702, 90703, 90704, 90705, 90706, 90707, 90708, 90710, 90712, 90713, 90714, 90715, 90716, 90719, 90720, 90721, 90723, 90732, 90733, 90734, 90736, 90739, 90740, 90743, 90744, 90746, 90747, 90748, G0008, G0009, G0010, J1571, J1573, Q2033, Q2034, Q2035, Q2036, Q2037, Q2038, Q2039, S0195, [Deleted 1/2013: 90701, 90718]
References
  1. Dallas County Health Department - 1992 Immunization Recommendations for children and adults, prepared by Charles E. Haley, MD, MS, FACP, County Epidemiologist (1992 November 24).
  2. Ad Hoc Working Group for the Development of Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices Journal of the American Medical Association (1993 April 14) 269(14):1817-22.
  3. USPSTF – Childhood Immunizations Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd Edition. 1996. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2002 April 19) http://www.odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov
  4. USPSTF – Adult Immunizations, Including Chemoprophylaxis against Influenza A Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd Edition. (1996). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2002 April 19) http://www.odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov
  5. AAP – Immunization of Adolescents: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association (RE9711) (March 1997). American Academy of Pediatrics - Committee on Infectious Diseases (2002 April 19) http://w.aap.org
  6. Patel, R. and L. Kinsinger Childhood Immunizations: American College of Preventive Medicine Practice Policy Statement. American Journal of Preventive Medicine (1997 March/April) 13(2):74-7.
  7. McDonnell, W.M. & F.K. Askari Immunization Journal of the American Medical Association (1997 December 10) 278(22):2000-7.
  8. Fingar, A.R. and B.J. Francis American College of Preventive Medicine Practice Policy Statement American Journal of Preventive Medicine (1998) 14(2):156-8.
  9. Zimmerman, R.K. AAFP, AAP and ACIP Release (1998) Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule American Family Physician (1998 January 1) 57(1):153-4, 157-8.
  10. FDA – Polio: Vaccine Information. (1998). Food and Drug Administration – Health and Human Services. (1998 January 13) http://www.fda.gov
  11. Bernstein, D.I, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 Vaccine (1998 February) 16(4):381-7.
  12. FDA – New Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Helps Prevent Severe Childhood Diarrhea and Vomiting. 1998. Food and Drug Administration – Health and Human Services. (1998 August 31). http://www.fda.gov
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Rotavirus Vaccine for the Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Children Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Morbidity and Mortality - Weekly Report (1999 March 19) 48 (RR-2):1-20.
  14. New Immunization Requirements for Schools and Child-care Facilities Disease Prevention News Texas Department of Health Publication (1999 August 30) 59(18):6-7.
  15. FDA – First Pneumococcal Vaccine Approved for Infants and Toddlers. 2000. Food and Drug Administration. (2000 February 17) http://www.fda.gov 
  16. A Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Infants and Children The Medical Letter, (2000 March 20) 42(1074): 25-7.
  17. AAFP – Table 1: Childhood Immunization Schedule for January - December 2002. American Academy of Family Practice. (2001) www.aafp.org 
  18. AAFP – Table 2: Immunizations for General Adult Population for 2002. American Academy of Family Practice. (2001) http://www.aafp.org .
  19. ACOG – Immunizations for Women 2002. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2002 April 19) http://www.acog.org .
  20. ACP – General Recommendations on Immunizations. 2002. American College of Physicians. (2002 April 19) http://www.acponline.org .
  21. AAP – Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule - United States. (January 2002). American Academy of Pediatrics - Committee on Infectious Diseases (2002 April 19) http://www.aap.org .
  22. NIP – State Immunization Requirements, K-12. January 31, 2002. National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002 April 19) http://www.cdc.gov .
  23. FDA – Vaccines Provide Effective Protection and FDA Makes Sure They are Safe. February 2002. Food and Drug Administration. (2006 June 2) http://www.fda.gov .
  24. CDC – General Recommendations on Immunizations. February 8, 2002. Centers for Disease Control - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (2002 April 19) http://www.ded.gov .
  25. CDC – Recommendations of the ACIP. April 12, 2002. Centers for Disease Control - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (2002 April 19) http://www.cdc.gov .
  26. HHS – Adult Immunization Overview. December 14, 2005. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2006 June 2) http://www.cms.hhs.gov.
  27. AAFP – Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for United States 2006 from Centers of Disease Control and Prevention of Department of Health and Human Services. American Academy of Family Practice. (2006 June 1) www.aafp.org .
  28. AAFP – Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule October 2005-September 2006 from enters of Disease Control and Prevention of Department of Health and Human Services. American Academy of Family Practice. (2006 June 1) www.aafp.org .
  29. FDA – RotaTeq [Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Pentavalent] Product Approval Information – Licensing Action. 2006. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. (2006 February 3) http://www.fda.gov .
  30. FDA – Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US. March 2006. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. (2006 June 2) http://www.fda.gov .
  31. AAFP – Newly Approved Vaccines Protect Against Shingles, Cervical Cancer. June 13, 2006. American Academy of Family Practice (2006 November 17) http://www.aafp.org .
  32. FDA – Gardasil [Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Recombinant Vaccine] Product Approval Information – Licensing Action. 2006. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2006 July 27) http://www.fda.gov .
  33. FDA – Zostavax [Zoster Vaccine, Live] Product Approval Information – Licensing Action. 2006. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2006 November 16) http://www.fda.gov .
  34. CDC – CDC’s Advisory Committee Recommends “Shingles” Vaccination. October 26, 2006. Centers for Disease Control – The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (2006 November 16) http://www.cdc.gov .
  35. FDA – FDA-approves new Vaccine to Prevent Gastroenteritis Caused by Rotavirus. April 3, 2008. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2008 April 4) http://www.fda.gov .
  36. FDA – Product Approval Information – DtaP-IPV. June 20, 2008. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2008 June 20) http://www.fda.gov .
  37. FDA – Pentacel Product Approval Information – DTap-IPV. June 24, 2008. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2008 June 24) http://www.fda.gov .
  38. FDA – Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine (Sanofli-Pasteur, Inc.) Product Approval Information. September 15, 2009. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2009 September 30).
  39. FDA – Gardasil Product Approval Information (Merck and Company, Inc.). October 16, 2009. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2009 October 19). http://www.fda.gov .
  40. FDA – Cervarix Product Approval Information (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). October 16, 2009. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2009 October 19). http://www.fda.gov .
  41. FDA – Fluzone High-Dose Approval Information (Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.). December 23, 2009. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2010 February 24). http://www.fda.gov .
  42. FDA – Prevnar 13 Approval Information (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.). February 24, 2010. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2010 March 4). http://www.fda.gov .
  43. FDA – Zostavax [Zoster Vaccine, Live] Product Approval Information – Licensing Action. 2006. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2011 March 24) http://www.fda.gov .
  44. FDA – Fluzone Intradermal Approval Information (Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.)  May 9, 2011. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2011 July 26) http://www.fda.gov .
  45. FDA – FluMist Quadrivalent Approval Information (MediImmune, LLC) February 29, 2012. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2012 April 5) http://www.fda.gov .
  46. FDA – MenHibrix Approval Information (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) June 14, 2012. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2012 October 4) http://www.fda.gov .
  47. FDA – Floarix Approval Information (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) December 14, 2012. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 January 3) http://www.fda.gov .
  48. FDA – Flucelvax Approval Information (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc.) November 20, 2012. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 January 11) http://www.fda.gov .
  49. FDA – Prevnar 13 Approval Information (Wyeth Pharmacteuticals, Inc.) January 22, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 February 12) http://www.fda.gov .
  50. FDA – Flublok Approval Information (Protein Sciences Corporation) January 16, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 April 26) http://www.fda.gov .
  51. FDA – Gardasil Approval Information (Merck Sharp and Dohme Corporation) December 22, 2010 and April 5, 2011. Food and Drug Administration – Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 August 1) http://www.fda.gov .
  52. CDC – Vaccine Information Statements (Multi-, Routine-, & Non-Routine-Vaccines VISs) 2013 September 20. Centers for Disease Control (2013 September 23) http://www.cdc.gov .
  53. CDC – Summary Recommendations: Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices-(ACIP)-United States, 2013-14, 2013 August 20. Centers for Disease Control (2013 September 23) http://www.cdc.gov .
  54. CDC – Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines – United States 2013-2014, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (2013 September 20). Centers for Disease Control (2013 September 23) http://www.cdc.gov .
  55. FDA – FluLaval Approval Information (ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec – dba GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) August 16, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 September 23) http://www.fda.gov .
  56. FDA – Fluzone Quadrivalent Approval Information (Sanofli Pasteur Inc.) June 7, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 September 23) http://www.fda.gov .
  57. FDA – Afluria Approval Information (CSL Biortherapies) July 19, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 September 26) http://www.fda.gov .
  58. FDA – Fluvirin Approval Information (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc.) July 19, 2013. Food and Drug Administration – Centers for Biologics Evaluation and Research (2013 September 26) http://www.fda.gov .
History
August 2013  New 2013 BCBSMT medical policy. 
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Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adults